https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/issue/feed Involta Scientific Journal 2023-01-29T17:25:02+05:00 Open Journal Systems <p>O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidentining 2020-yil 29-oktabrda qabul qilingan “Ilm-fanni 2030-yilgacha rivojlantirish konsepsiyasini tasdiqlash to‘g‘risida”gi Farmonida ko‘zda tutilgan vazifalar ijrosini ta’minlash maqsadida Xorazm Maʼmun akademiyasi koʻmagida ta’sis etilgan “Involta” ilmiy jurnalining (O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidenti Administratsiyasi huzuridagi Axborot va ommaviy kommunikasiyalarni rivojlantirish agentligining 1453-sonli Guvohnoma hamda ISSN 2181-2632, <a class="text-entity-link" dir="auto" title="http://www.involta.uz" href="http://www.involta.uz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">www.involta.uz</a> veb sayti) maqolalar qabuli e’lon qilinadi.</p> <p>Jurnal Google Scholar, Doi/Zenodo, OpenAire, OJS/PKP, Wikipedia, LinkedIn , Open access, International Copernicus bazalarida indekslanadi. Jurnalda e’lon qilingan maqolalar Involta (ISJ) LinkedIn rasmiy sahifasida roʻyxatdan oʻtadi. Jurnal O‘zbekiston hamda Mustaqil Davlatlar Hamdo‘stligi davlatlari hududi bo‘ylab elektron shaklda e’lon qilinadi. <br /><br /><strong>Jurnalga quyidagi yo‘nalishlar bo‘yicha maqolalar qabul qilinadi:</strong> <br /><br /><em>1. Filologiya fanlari </em><br /><em>2. Pedagogika fanlari </em><br /><em>3. Ijtimoiy-gumanitar fanlar </em><br /><em>4. Aniq fanlar </em><br /><em>5. Tabiiy fanlar </em><br /><em>6. Iqtisod fanlari </em><br /><em>7. Psixologiya fanlari </em><br /><em>8. San’at va madaniyat fanlari </em><br /><em>9. Tibbiyot fanlari </em><br /><em>10. Texnika fanlari</em></p> https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/391 O’ZBEK VA INGLIZ XALQLARIDA PARALINGVISTIK VOSITALAR VA ULARNING TURLARI 2023-01-08T10:27:41+05:00 Murodjonova Latofat shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Tojiboyev Isakjon shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Ushbu maqola orqali o‘zbek va ingliz xalqlarida ishlatiladigan paralingvistik vositalarning turlari, vazifasi va ularning o’rganilishi haqida fikr yuritilinadi.</p> 2023-01-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/392 МОТИВАЦИЯ СЛУШАНИЯ, ИНТЕРЕС И ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКАЯ УВЕРЕННОСТЬ В СЕБЕ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА 2023-01-08T10:34:14+05:00 Пакирдинова Шарофат shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Йигиталиева Нозимахон shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>В отличие от мотивации чтения, мотивация слушания в значительной степени игнорировалась исследователями, учителями и учащимися. Будучи одним из двух единственных каналов получения языковой информации (другим является чтение), аудирование является очень важным первым шагом для развития владения английским языком. В настоящем исследовании изучалась взаимосвязь между тремя предикторами (мотивация к аудированию, интерес и лингвистическая уверенность в себе) и результатом (общий уровень владения языком).</p> 2023-01-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/393 MAKKAJO’XORI VA NO’XAT KONSERVALAR 2023-01-08T10:38:53+05:00 Sirojiddin Sadullayev shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Laylo Baxramova shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Konservalangan makkajo'xori va no’xot foydalari hamda zarari ko'pchilikni qiziqtiradi. Mahsulot ko'pincha salatlar va taomlar tayyorlashda ishlatiladi. Konservalangan makkajo'xori fotosurati ham ijobiy his-tuyg'ularni uyg'otadi. Bu mazali va oson hazm bo'ladigan mahsulot, shuning uchun ko'p odamlar uni ko'p miqdorda iste'mol qilishga tayyor. Biroq, siz buni qilmasligingiz kerak - agar siz juda ko'p makkajo'xori iste'mol qilsangiz, foyda bo'lmaydi. Aksincha, urug'lar oshqozon va zararga olib keladi. Konservalangan mahsulot uchun tavsiya etilgan norma kuniga 100 g dan ko'p bo'lmagan don hisoblanadi. Konservalangan makkajo'xori foydasi va zarari uning sifati va individual salomatlik holatiga bog'liq. Agar kontrendikatsiyalar bo'lmasa va konservalangan donalar barcha qoidalarga muvofiq qish uchun o'ralgan bo'lsa, unda shirin makkajo'xori nafaqat sog'liq uchun foyda keltiradi.</p> 2023-01-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/394 THE ROLE OF PARALINGUISTIC TOOLS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 2023-01-08T10:43:39+05:00 Nabiyeva Diyora shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Ashurali Mirzayev shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Paralinguistics are the aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words. These may add emphasis or shades of meaning to what people say. Some definitions limit this to verbal communication that is not words. This article analyzes research related to paralinguistics from a historical perspective. The aim is to study the work of researchers and the peculiarities of the historical formation of paralinguistics. Paralinguistic tools allow interlocutors to exchange information without using linguistic means of expression during communication, using facial expressions, gestures, looks, intonations, etc. In this case, during communication, codes supplement information and express the feelings of interlocutors or replace speech.</p> 2023-01-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/396 CONTRIBUTION OF THE JADIDS TO THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF TURKESTAN DEVELOPMENT 2023-01-12T20:38:42+05:00 Hamroyeva Nilufar shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p><strong>At the end of the XIX century, a new force gradually matured in the depths of Turkestan society, which was destined to play an extremely important role in the socio-political life of the region. This powerful social force was represented by local progressive intellectuals united in a movement known as Jadidism (from the Arabic word "jadid" - "new, new"). The most important impetus for the emergence and development of Jadidism in Turkestan was two factors: internal and external. The first factor is the colonial and anti-national policy of tsarism carried out in the province. The second is the reform processes taking place during this period in Turkey, Egypt and other Eastern countries.</strong></p> 2023-01-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/397 THE THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF JOHN GREEN’S THE FAULT IN OUR STARS 2023-01-12T20:42:36+05:00 S.L.Xayrulloyeva nishonqulovshoxruh@gmail.com <p>The painstaking struggle of Esther Earl, who was born August 3, 1994, and contracted a terminating illness in her childhood became the inspiration for John Green’s The Fault in Our Stars protagonist Hazel Grace Lancaster. The author made up some events and personages around real-life-based-character Hazel. This work has become world-class bestseller and occupied a special place from the hearts of millions of readers around the world. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate implicit themes in this literary masterpiece. We conducted this study on library research method, gathering data from both academic and non-academic fields. The findings illustrated that there are at least seven themes manifested in this book.1) Fate; 2) Accepting reality; 3) Love; 4) Courage to suffer; 5) Importance of dreams; 6) Obsessions; 7) Commitment. Finally, we drew the conclusion that being bound to die could not stop the personages from living, because life is not measured by the days they are alive, but by the days they are living their dreams.</p> 2023-01-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/398 ''INGLIZ TILIDAGI O'RIN-JOY MUNOSABARINI IFODALOVCHI LEKSIK VA MORFOLOGIK VOSITALAR" 2023-01-12T20:48:56+05:00 Xoshimova Nargis shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Muxtorova Raximaxon shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p><strong>Morfologiya</strong> -<strong><a href="https://uz.eferrit.com/sozning-tarifi-nima/">so'z</a></strong> tuzilmalarini, xususan,<a href="https://uz.eferrit.com/morpheme-soz-va-soz-qismlari/">morfemalar</a> bo'yicha o'rganadigan <a href="https://uz.eferrit.com/zamonaviy-tilshunoslikning-kopgina-kichik-zonalari/">tilshunoslikning</a> (va <a href="https://uz.eferrit.com/ingliz-tilidagi-grammatikani-tarifi-va-misollar/">grammatikaning</a> asosiy tarkibiy qismlaridan biri) filialidir. Sifat: <em>morfologik</em>.</p> 2023-01-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/399 МАКТАБГАЧА ТАЪЛИМ ЖАРАЁНИДА АХБОРОТ КОММУНИКАЦИЯ ТЕХНОЛОГИЯЛАРИДАН ФОЙДАЛАНИШНИНГ АСОСИЙ ШАРТЛАРИ 2023-01-12T20:54:53+05:00 Наргиза Мўминова shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Мақола мактабгача таълим ташкилотлари педагог ходимларининг медиакомпетентлигини ривожлантириш масалаларига бағишланган. Муаллиф медиакомпетентлик мактабгача таълимдаги инновацион жараёнлар бола шахсини ривожлантиришга қаратилган таълим муҳитини яратиш ва ривожлантириш учун восита бўлиб хизмат қилишини таъқидлаб ўтган.</p> 2023-01-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/400 METHODS FOR TEACHING ENGLISH TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN 2023-01-19T06:10:37+05:00 Uralova Dilfuza shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>in this article English to preschool children teaching methods were written, and now English is becoming a world language therefore, it should be started from pre-school, that is, kindergarten age, this is what the article is about gives information.</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/401 HISTORIOGRAPHY OF COLLECTIVIZATION POLICY IN UZBEKISTAN 2023-01-19T06:12:48+05:00 Meliyeva Munira shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>The article provides a historiographical overview of historical research in the field of agrarian policy of Uzbekistan, the time when the Uzbek national economy there were turning points collectivization and industrialization. The author made an attempt to trace the main patterns in the study this problem, the general nature of the works devoted to agricultural topics, as well as to highlight the characteristic points of view on this topic.</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/402 NEYRОLINGVISTIKА SОHАSINI О`RGАNISH TENDENSIYАLАRI 2023-01-19T06:16:52+05:00 Muqаddаm Аbdug'оfur qizi Jurаyevа shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Sevara SultanovnaUsmanova shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Neyrоlingvistikа tilning miyаdа qаndаy nаmоyоn bо'lishini о'rgаnаdi: bizning miyаmiz biz gаpirаdigаn, tushunаdigаn, о'qigаn vа yоzаdigаn til (yоki tillаr) hаqidаgi bilimlаrimizni qаndаy vа qаyerdа sаqlаshini vа biz uni о'zlаshtirgаnimizdа miyаmizdа nimа sоdir bо'lishini о`rgаnаdi.</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/403 MARKAZIY OSIYO KO’CHMANCHI XALQLARNING MA’NAVIY MADANIYATI 2023-01-19T06:21:07+05:00 Atajanova Dilnoza shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Markaziy Osiyo xalqlarining, xususan, ko’chmanchi – chorvador xalqlarning madaniyati, tarixiy ildizlari, ijtimoiy, falsafiy, ahloqiy diniy, badiiy qarashlari sakllana va rivojlana borishning&nbsp; ilk davrlari qadim – qadim zamonlarga borib taqaladi. Hududimizda yashagan ko’chmanchi – chorvador avlod – ajdodlarimizning hayoti, urf-odatlari va an’analari, madaniyati, tili&nbsp; va tarixini badiiy-falsafiy jihatdan o’ziga xos tarzda aks ettiradigan xalq og’zaki ijodiyoti nihoyatda boy va xilma-xildir. Afsonalar, qahramonlar to’g’risidagi dostonlar, to’y-sayillarda aytiladigan xalq laparlari, lirik she’rlar, maqol, masal va matalllar xalq og’zaki ijodiyoti madaniyatning uzoq tarixiga ega bo’lgan sohalaridir. Ularning ijodkori – barcha moddiy va ma’naviy boyliklarni yaratgan xalq ommasidir.</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/404 CHINGIZXON VA AMIR TEMURNING QO‘SHINLAR JANGOVAR RUHINI KO‘TARISHDAGI CHORA-TADBIRLARI 2023-01-25T09:42:30+05:00 Qobulov S.М. shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Biz ko‘rib o‘tmoqchi bo‘lganimiz ikki sarkarda Chingizxon va Amir Temur garchand bir-biridan keskin farq qiluvchi ikki zamonda yashamagan bo‘lsada, ularning davlat barpo etishdagi sharoit o‘zgacha bo‘lgan.</p> <p>Qo‘shinlarning ahloqiy-ruhiy holatini barqaror saqlab turishda, agar zarur bo‘lsa uni mustahkamlashda harbiy sarkardaning harbiy mahorati, shaxsiy namunasi, diniy motiv, musiqiy kuy-qo‘shiqlar, jangchilarni oldinga harakatlantiruvchi turli chaqiriqlar va hayratlanarli nutqiy birikmalar muhim ahamiyatga ega hisoblanadi.</p> <p>Chingizxon turli din, e’tiqodga sig‘inuvchi, turli til va lahjalarda so‘zlovchi bir-biri bilan kelishmay maydalashib ketgan urug‘, ulus va qabilalarni o‘zaro-nizolaridan ustamonlik bilan foydalanib, kichik bir hududda o‘z davlatini barpo qildi va o‘zi e’tiqodsiz bo‘lgani holda barcha dinlarga nisbatan baravar munosatda bo‘lib hokimiyatini tikladi hamda keyinchalik bu amaliyotni vorislariga ham nasihat qilib qoldirdi.</p> <p>Amir Temur esa islom bayrog‘i keng yoyilgan, aholisining aksariyati musulmon bo‘lgan Movarounnahr va Xuroson o‘lkalarida yashovchi islomga e’tiqod qiluvchilar ishonchiga kirib, sayidlar va shayxlar rahnamoligida yagona islom g‘oyasi qo‘llab-quvvatlagan va mana shu asosda o‘z armiyasi ruhiy holatini, tartib-intizomini ushlab turgan.</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/406 VIEWS OF ABU ALI IBN SINA IN THE FIELD OF GERONTOLOGY 2023-01-25T09:44:40+05:00 Dildora Ergashevna Kushmatova shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Farahnoza Orifjonovna Olimjonova shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Данная статья посвящена геронтологическам аспектам, которые были освещены и раскрыты в великом произведении Абу Али ибн Сины «Канон врачебной науки». Освещаются особенности физиологического состояния пожилых людей, особенности их питания и образа жизни и указаны профилактические меры по увеличению продолжительности жизни.</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/407 WHAT IMPACT HAS CLIMATE CHANGE HAD ON CORAL REEF? 2023-01-25T09:48:45+05:00 Alijonova Nurkhon shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Yo’ldosheva Salomat shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>This article will discuss impact of climate changes to the coral reefs. Atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and ocean acidification is altering the environment dramatically as a result of 95 % of human activities such as burning fossil fuels to power homes, factories, airplanes, and cars. This climate change is the greatest global threat to coral reef ecosystems which are very important to provide 500 million people with food or resources. The coral reef ecosystems have played crucial role in our understanding how our surrounded atmosphere may respond to climate change. However, the main purpose of this research is to discuss causes of climate change (a warming ocean, ocean acidification and changes in storm patterns) on marine environment&nbsp; such as coral reefs which are likely to change over the next decades.</p> 2023-01-23T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/408 ТАБИИЙ КОНВЕКЦИЯЛИ ҚУЁШ ҚУРИТГИЧЛАРИНИНГ УНУМДОРЛИГИНИ ТАҲЛИЛ ҚИЛИШ 2023-01-25T09:53:46+05:00 Қодиров Жобир shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Ҳакимова Сабина shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Раупов Махмуд shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Қишлоқ хўжалик маҳсулотларини табиий конвекцияли ва ҳаво коллекторли билвосита қуёш қуритгичларида қуритишда маҳсулот ва қуритиш агенти орасида келадиган иссиқлик ва масса алмашинув жараёнларида табиий конвекцияли билвосита қуёш қуритгиларининг конструктив ва технологик ечимлари, уларнинг самарадорлигини, қуритиладиган маҳсулотларни анъанавий ва қуёш энергияси ёрдамида қуритиш технологиялари бўйича олиб борилган тадқиқот ишларини қиёсий тахлиллари қилинди:</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/409 EXPERIMENTAL ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF THE DRYING PROCESS 2023-01-25T09:58:09+05:00 Ibragimov Salim shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Fuzailov Farhad shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>In solar dryers (combined systems), a method of convective-conductive drying is provided. With this method of drying, thermal energy is transferred to the grain from heating the web of belt conveyors and with the passage of sunlight through the transparent walls of the additional drying chamber, as a result of which the air in the chamber is heated and the grains are heated by convection.</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/410 EXPERIMENTAL DRYING PLANT OF DIRECT TYPE FOR DRYING GRAPES 2023-01-25T10:01:58+05:00 Ibragimov Salim shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Xusenov Chinorbek shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>The dryer was built in Uzbekistan, the city of Bukhara. It twice dried grapes of 800 kg. The grapes were initially dried for 3 days at a humidity of 82%, then for 5 days in the sun. Thus dried grapes are completely protected from insects, pests, dust and rain. In addition, the dried grapes turned out to be clean and of high quality.</p> 2023-01-23T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/411 МИЛЛИЙ ҲУНАРМАНДЧИЛИК МАҲСУЛОТЛАРИ РАҚОБАТБАРДОШЛИГИНИ ОШИРИШ АҲАМИЯТИ 2023-01-29T17:01:57+05:00 Дилдора Султонова shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p><strong>Мақолада миллий ҳунармандчилик маҳсулотларини ишлаб чиқаришни ривожлантириш ва рақобатбардошлигини ошириш йўллари келтирилган. Шу билан бирга </strong>ҳунармандчиликнинг турлари ва улар фаолиятин ривожлантиришнинг иқтисодий механизм ташкил қилиш тадбирлари келтирилган.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/412 «JAMOAT SALOMATLIGI VA SOG’LIQNI SAQLASH IQTISODIYOTI» FANIDAN MASHGULOTLARNI INTERFAOL O’YINIDAN FOYDALANIB O’TISHNING AFZALLIKLARI 2023-01-29T17:05:59+05:00 Hakimova Xonbuvi shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Ushbu maqolada tibbiyot oliygohlaridao’qitish va nazorat qilishning interfaol usullari bo’yicha materiallar, assimilyasiyani o’z-o’zini nazorat qilish uchun savollar, mustaqil ish uchun topshriqlar, adabiyotlar va ilovalar keltirilgan. Tibbiyot oliy o’quv yurtlari professot-o’qituvchilari, shu jumladan psixologik- pedagogic malakasini oshirish tizimida malaka oshirayotganlar , oliy ta’lim muassasalarining o’quv amaliyotiga interfaol usullarni moslashtirish va joriy etish masalalari bilan qiziqqan magistrantlar uchun tavsiya etiladi.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/413 RICE FARMING TERMS IN WORKS OF ALISHER NAVOI 2023-01-29T17:12:22+05:00 Pirmatova Ozoda shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com Tilavova Minavar shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Maqolada sholichilikka oid terminlarning Alisher Navoiy asarlarida ishlatilishi va lug’aviy&nbsp; ma’nosi, mumtoz adabiyotda turli ma’nolar kasb etishi tahlil qilingan.&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/414 VAQTNI O’LCHASH. KALENDARLAR-OY VA QUYOSH KALENDARLARI 2023-01-29T17:16:32+05:00 Abdullayeva Z.G’ shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Maqolada vaqtning ta’rifi, turlari, uni o’lchash usullari, duyo vaqti, poyas vaqti keng yoritilgan. Undan tashqari kalendarning ta’rifi, yaratilish tarixi, Quyosh kalendari, Oy kalendari, Umar Xayyom kalendarlarining&nbsp; turmushdagi ahamiyati, ishlatilishi, bu kalendarlardagi har bir oyning&nbsp; nomlari haqida batafsil ma’lumot berilgan. Bu maqola aziz ustoz va o’quvchilarga yetarli ma’lumot beradi deb umid qilaman.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/415 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY 2023-01-29T17:20:32+05:00 Yuldashova Saida shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>The role of new pedagogical technologies in the education of the individual and advantages. The difference between pedagogical technology and methodology. Teachers access and implement innovations without always realizing their full implications for them and their students. However, this is not necessarily a negative thing, because if no one used innovations, little progresses would be made and there would be nothing to evaluate.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://involta.uz/index.php/iv/article/view/416 XORAZMDA ZARGARLIK VA KANDAKORLIK SAN’ATI TARIXI 2023-01-29T17:25:02+05:00 Matniyozov Sarvarbek shoxjoxa12345@gmail.com <p>Ushbu maqolada Xorazmda zargarlik va kandakorlik san’atining XVIII-XX asrlardagi rivoji tahlil qilinadi. Zargarlik buyumlarining ishlatilishiga qarab turlari va o’ziga xos jihatlari tavsiflanadi. Kandakorlik san’atining noyob namunalari,yasalish uslublari tahlil qilinadi.Ushbu sohalar rivoj topgan hududlar va ustalar nomlari sanab o’tiladi.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023